Competition with lipases and monoglycerides at interfaces
Journal article, 2008
Tensiometry (the pendant drop technique), interfacial shear rheology, and ellipsometry have been used to study the effect of polar lipids that are generated during fat digestion on the behavior of lipases at the oil - water interface. Both Sn-1,3 regiospecific and nonregiospecific lipases have been used, and a noncatalytically active protein, β-lacloglobulin, has been used as reference in the interfacial shear rheology experiments. The results from the pendant drop measurements and the interfacial rheology studies were in agreement with each other and demonstrated that the Sn-2 monoglyceride, which is one of the lipolysis products generated when a Sn-1,3 regiospecific lipase catalyzes triglyceride hydrolysis, is very interfacially active and efficiently expels the enzyme from the interface. Ellipsometry conducted at the liquid-liquid interface showed that the lipase forms a sublayer in the aqueous phase, just beneath the monoglyceride-covered interface. Sn-1/3 monoglycerides do not behave this way because they are rapidly degraded to fatty acid and glycerol and the fatty acid (or the fatty acid salt) does not have enough interfacial activity to expel the lipase from the interface. Since the lipases present in the gastrointestinal tract are highly Sn-1,3 regiospecific, we believe that the results obtained can be transferred to the in vivo situation. The formation of stable and amphiphilic Sn-2 monoglycerides can be seen as a self-regulatory process for fat digestion.