Pharmacological treatment of osteopenia induced by gastrectomy or ovariectomy in young female rats.
Journal article, 2004
BACKGROUND: Both gastrectomy (GX) and ovariectomy (OVX) induce osteopenia in man and experimental animals. The present study addresses the question--can alendronate, estrogen or parathyroid hormone (PTH) be used to treat established GX- or OVX -evoked osteopenia? METHODS: Rats were GX-, OVX- or SHAM-operated 8 weeks before starting the treatment with drugs. Each group was then treated for 8 weeks with 50 microg/kg/day alendronate, 10 microg/kg/day estrogen or 75 microg/kg/day PTH(1-84); n = 8 rats/group. Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) was used to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and various cortical bone parameters. RESULTS: At killing, 16 weeks after surgery, GX and OVX rats had a greatly reduced trabecular BMD in the metaphysis of the distal femur (GX -44% and OVX -55%). Alendronate increased the trabecular BMD by 44% in GX rats and by 64% in OVX rats, while PTH increased it by 51% and 115%, respectively. However, estrogen increased the trabecular BMD in GX rats (35%), but not in OVX rats (15%, not significant). Cortical bone parameters were adversely (but moderately) affected by GX, but not by OVX or by treatment with the three drugs. INTERPRETATION: Alendronate, estrogen and PTH restored the trabecular bone loss in rats with an established GX-evoked osteopenia. In contrast, alendronate and PTH, but not estrogen, restored the trabecular bone loss after OVX. Hence, the mechanism underlying GX-evoked bone loss differs from that underlying OVX-evoked bone loss. The ability of alendronate, estrogen and PTH to reverse the GX-evoked osteopenia in the rat may be of clinical interest when dealing with bone loss in humans after GX.