Propylphenols are metabolites in the anaerobic biodegradation of propylbenzene under iron-reducing conditions
Journal article, 2005
The metabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by an iron-reducing bacterial enrichment culture originating from diesel-contaminated groundwater was examined using d 7 -propylbenzene as a model hydrocarbon. Sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene showed that the dominant part (10 of 10 clones) of the enrichment culture consisted of a bacterium closely related to clones found in benzene-contaminated groundwater and to the iron-reducing β- proteobacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens (similarity values were 99.5% and 98.3%, respectively). In degradation studies conducted over 18 weeks, d 7 -propylphenols were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as intra-cellular metabolites concomitant with cell growth in the cultures. The amount of propylphenols increased during the exponential growth phase, and by the end of this phase 4 × 10 -14 moles of ferric iron were reduced and 3 × 10 -15 moles propylphenol produced for every cell formed. During the stationary growth phase the cell density was approximately 10 7 ml -1 , with significantly correlated amounts of propylphenols. Succinate derivates of propylbenzene or phenylpropanol previously shown to be the initial metabolites in the anaerobic degradation of alkylbenzenes could not be identified. This study is the first to report that oxidation of propylbenzene to propylphenols can initiate anaerobic propylbenzene degradation and that iron-reducing bacteria are responsible for this process. In addition, the study shows the importance of taking account of the metabolites adhering to solid phases when determining the extent of biodegradation, so as not to underestimate the extent of the process.