A starch-based pH-sensing and ammonia detector film containing betacyanin of paperflower for application in intelligent packaging of fish
Journal article, 2021

An easy-to-use food packaging label with pH and ammonia sensitivity was developed by adding betacyanin (5, 10 and 15 mg per g of starch) from flowers of paperflower (Bougainvillea glabra) to potato starch film made using the solvent casting method. The betacyanin was well dispersed into the starch matrix and formed new interactions with it as revealed by FTIR. The film containing 15 mg/g of betacyanin showed a color change from light pink to yellow as a response to pH adjustment of between 2 to 13. It was also able to detect the presence of ammonia in a range of 0.1 and 0.01 mg of ammonia per ml of water. Surface hydrophobicity and water vapor barrier capacity of the starch film increased by addition of the betacyanin, yet their mechanical strength decreased in the presence of the betacyanin. The ability of the film in the real-time indication of fish quality as a label was also evaluated during the storage of Caspian sprat at 4 °C. A visual change in the color of the packaging label from pink to yellow in parallel with the increase in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), microbial count of the fish samples was detected. The starch/betacyanin film could be a novel intelligent label for application in food packaging.

pH indicatorAmmonia detectorStarchBetacyaninFish freshnessEdible film


Shahab Naghdi

Tarbiat Modares University

Masoud Rezaei

Tarbiat Modares University

Mehdi Abdollahi

Chalmers, Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

0141-8130 (ISSN)

Vol. 191 161-170

Subject Categories

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Materials Chemistry

Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems



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