Bilevel optimization for bunching mitigation and eco-driving of electric bus lines
Journal article, 2021

The problems of bus bunching mitigation and of the energy management of groups of vehicles are traditionally treated separately in the literature, and formulated in two different frameworks. The present work bridges this gap by formulating the optimal control problem of the bus line eco-driving and regularity control as a smooth, multi-objective nonlinear program. Since this nonlinear program only has few coupling variables, it is shown how it can be solved in parallel aboard each bus such that only a marginal amount of computations need to be carried out centrally. This leverages the decentralized structure of a bus line by enabling parallel computations and reducing the communication loads between the buses, which makes the problem resolution scalable in terms of the number of buses. Closed-loop control is then achieved by embedding this procedure in a model predictive control. Stochastic simulations based on real passengers and travel times data are realized for several scenarios with different levels of bunching for a line of electric buses. Our method achieves fast recoveries to regular headways as well as energy savings of up to 9.3% when compared with traditional holding or speed control baselines.

nonlinear programming.

bus lines

electric buses

optimal control


Bus bunching


Rémi Lacombe

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control

Sebastien Gros

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control

Nikolce Murgovski

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Mechatronics

Balázs Adam Kulcsár

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control

IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems

1524-9050 (ISSN)

Vol. In press

OPerational Network Energy managemenT for electrified buses (OPNET)

Swedish Energy Agency (46365-1), 2018-10-01 -- 2021-12-31.

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Transport Systems and Logistics

Communication Systems

Control Engineering



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