Impacts on producers and customers of conflicting rules for LCA
Research Project, 2020 – 2022

Many guidelines and standards have been produced in attempts to make LCA more uniform. Three of the guidelines are particularly relevant for producers of renewable fuels:

· The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) includes rules for how the climate impact is to be calculated to show that a fuel meets the requirements of the Directive.

· Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) is an LCA framework recently developed by the EU for communication with customers and possibly also for policymaking.

· Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) is an older framework for communicating LCA results to customers.

The three LCA frameworks present different calculation rules. We applied each framework to eight different renewable and/or waste-based fuels to investigate how important these differences are for the LCA results.


Tomas Ekvall (contact)

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Anna Wikström

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, TME verksamhetsstöd


IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

Stockholm, Sweden

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Göteborg, Sweden

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Stockholm, Sweden


Swedish Energy Agency

Project ID: 50481-1
Funding Chalmers participation during 2020–2022

f3 – Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Fuels

Funding Chalmers participation during 2020–2022

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