Smart, benign and synergistic antifouling cocktails for achieving a non-toxic environment: formulation and ecotoxicological evaluation
Research Project , 2018 – 2022

This project will study biocide combinations which show promising high efficacy at target sites and low environmental impacts. We aim to make use of biocidal synergy to formulate sustainable state-of-the-art antifouling fiber-based material. This is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in microcapsules from which the release of the biocides is controlled at the lowest efficient rate over a prolonged time. Combining biocidal synergy with smart and controlled release considerably reduces biocide emissions and, consequently, the environmental impact of antifouling and antimicrobial products.As a consequence of the efforts to prevent biofouling, a multitude of toxic biocides with potential to induce antimicrobial resistance are polluting the marine environment. The biocide emissions into the environment are usually excessive due to a fast and uncontrolled leakage from antifouling products. Biocide-free approaches suffer from high costs, poor longevity, and loss of function and are therefore not implemented by the industry.In recent times, concern has been raised about the risks of combination effects of chemical mixtures. Therefore both the industry as well as the public and regulatory authorities will benefit from increased ecotoxicological knowledge of synergistic mixtures. Further, the project will also directly contribute to the non-toxic environment by providing a sustainable and implementable antifouling/antimicrobial technology to industrial stakeholders and end-users.


Lars Nordstierna (contact)

Professor at Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Lars Evenäs Group


RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Göteborg, Sweden


Kista, Sweden

University of Gothenburg

Gothenburg, Sweden



Project ID: 2018-02284
Funding Chalmers participation during 2018–2022

Related Areas of Advance and Infrastructure

Sustainable development

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