Numerical studies of the combined effects of blast and fragment loading
Journal article, 2009
The well-known synergetic effect of blast and fragment loading, observed in numerous experiments, is often pointed out in design manuals for protective structures. However, since this synergetic effect is not well understood it is often not taken into account, or is treated in a very simplified manner in the design process itself. A numerical-simulation tool has been used to further study the combined blast and fragment loading effects on a reinforced concrete wall. Simulations of the response of a wall strip subjected to blast loading, fragment loading, and combined blast and fragment loading were conducted and the results were compared. Most damage caused by the impact of fragments occurred within the first 0.2 ms after fragments' arrival, and in the case of fragment loading (both alone and combined with blast) the number of flexural cracks formed was larger than in the case of blast loading alone. The overall damage of the wall strip subjected to combined loading was more severe than if adding the damages caused by blast and fragment loading treated separately, which also indicates the synergetic effect of the combined loading. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.