BINDING OF 4',6-DIAMIDINO-2-PHENYLINDOLE (DAPI) TO AT REGIONS OF DNA - EVIDENCE FOR AN ALLOSTERIC CONFORMATIONAL CHANGE
Journal article, 1993
The interaction of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) with several double-helical poly- and oligonucleotides has been studied in solution using optical spectroscopic techniques: flow linear dichroism (LD), induced circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. In AT-rich sequences, where DAPI is preferentially bound, LD indicates that the molecule is edgewise inserted into the minor groove at an angle of approximately 45-degrees to the helix axis. This binding geometry is found for very low as well as quite high binding ratios. The concluded geometry is in agreement with that of the DAPI complex in a crystal with the Drew-Dickerson dodecamer, and the DAPI complex with this dodecamer in solution is verified to have an ICD spectrum similar to that of the complex with [poly(dA-dT)]2 at low binding ratios. The observation of two types of CD spectra characteristic for the binding of DAPI to DNA, and also for the interaction with [poly(dA-dT)]2, demonstrates that the first binding mode, despite its low apparent abundance (a few percent), is not due to a specific DNA site. The effect may be explained in terms of an allosteric binding such that when DAPI molecules bind contiguously to the AT sequence the conformation of the latter is changed. The new conformation, which according to LD appears to be stiffer than normal B-form DNA, is responsible for the second type of induced CD spectrum in the DAPI chromophore. Although the spectroscopic results indicate a change of DNA conformation, consistent with an allosteric binding model, they do not explicitly require any cooperativity, but accidental neighbors could also explain the data.
reduced dichroism curves