Interaction of Delta- and Lambda-[Ru(phen)2DPPZ]2+ with DNA: A Calorimetric and Equilibrium Binding Study
Journal article, 1995
Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and viscosity measurements have been used to characterize the interaction of Delta and Lambda [Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+) with calf thymus DNA. The method of continuous variations revealed two distinct binding stoichiometries for both Delta- and Lambda-DPPZ, corresponding to 0.7 and 3 mol of base pair/mol of ligand. Binding isotherms were obtained for the two enantiomers, both of which show strong binding to DNA, with K = 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) bp and 1.7 x 10(6) M(-1) bp for the Delta and Lambda isomers, respectively, at 25 degrees C in solutions containing 50 mM NaCl. Titration calorimetry gave Delta H values of +0.3 kcal mol(-1) for Delta-DPPZ and +2.9 kcal mol(-1) for Lambda-DPPZ for their interaction with DNA. These small positive enthalpies, which were confirmed using thermal difference spectroscopy, indicated that the binding of these compounds to DNA is entropically driven. An enthalpy of +2.5 kcal mol(-1) was obtained for the binding of the parent compound, tris(phenanthroline)-Ru(II), to DNA. Titration of all three compounds into buffer gave a nonnegligible heat of dilution. The salt dependence of the binding constant was examined for both isomers. The slope SK = (delta logK/delta log[Na+]) was found to be 1.9 and 2.1 for the Delta and Lambda isomers, respectively. By using polyelectrolyte theory to interpret the observed salt dependence of the equilibrium constant, it can be shown that there is a significant nonelectrostatic contribution to the binding constant. Relative viscosity experiments showed that both Delta- and Lambda-DPPZ increase the length of rod-like DNA, in a manner consistent with binding by classical intercalation. Fluorescence energy transfer experiments provided additional evidence for the intercalation of Delta- and Lambda-[Ru(phen)(2)DPPZ](2+) into DNA.