EFFECT OF 2.45 GHZ MICROWAVE-RADIATION ON PERMEABILITY OF UNILAMELLAR LIPOSOMES TO 5(6)-CARBOXYFLUORESCEIN - EVIDENCE OF NONTHERMAL LEAKAGE
Journal article, 1991
The influence of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the membrane permeability of unilamellar liposomes was studied using the marker 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein trapped in phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The release of the fluorescent marker was followed by spectrofluorimetry after an exposure of 10 minutes to either microwave radiation or to heat alone of the liposome solutions. A significant increase of the permeability of carboxyfluorescein through the membrane was observed for the microwave-exposed samples compared to those exposed to normal heating only. Exposure to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation of liposomes has been previously found to produce increased membrane permeability as compared with heating. However, in contrast to previous studies, the observations reported here were made above the phase transition temperature of the lipid membrane. The experimental setup included monitoring of the temperature during microwave exposure simultaneously at several points in the solution volume using a fiberoptic thermometer. Possible mechanisms to explain the observations are discussed.