Detailed specification and design specification for optimised layout, passenger flow and dwell time including new and attractive front, D 2.1.3.a in the project European Bus System of the Future
Report, 2011

In D2.1.3.a, simulation models are built for different bus design in order to find a optimal bus layout in terms of dwell time and passenger flow. The simulation result shows that layout 4 is the optimal one compared to other layouts. The main features of layout 4 are centre driver position and short front overhang, double doors with large door blade and flexible seat type in front car. It is also shown that dwell time can be reduced when ticket machines are positioned far away from the door (on the opposite side of the aisle), compared to the results when the ticket machines are positioned near by the door. Physical bus mockups are built in order to evaluate how different bus layouts affect dwell times and passengers’ experiences. It shows that the addition of the 4th door is positive. The experiment allowing passengers to only enter through the front door, however, increases dwell times.

physical bus mockup

bus layout

door type

Dwell time

passenger flow

Simulation modelling

flexible seat


centre driver position


Oskar Rexfelt

Chalmers, Product and Production Development, Design and Human Factors

A. Hanna

Zhiping Wang

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Innovation and entrepreneurship

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified

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