Effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charge Scheduling on the Day-ahead Electricity Market Price
Paper in proceedings, 2012
With the advent of plug-in electric vehicles (EV), it becomes increasingly important to study the impact of charge scheduling of a large number of EVs on the day-ahead electricity market price. In this paper, two scheduling models are proposed- joint scheduling model and aggregator scheduling model. They are used to study the effects of scheduling of EV charging on the day-ahead market price of electricity at various penetration levels of the EVs. Results from studies on an IEEE 30-bus test system show that, at lower penetration of EVs, a simple scheduling method using fixed-period charging during low demand periods can be used, without a large increase in market price. But at higher penetration levels, the opposite holds true, requiring advanced scheduling methods such as proposed in this paper. Between the two, joint scheduling model results in a lower increase in electricity price and is further tested on a simplified Nordic day-ahead market model. An overall conclusion is that the Nordic day-ahead market can accommodate large penetration of EVs without a significant increase in market price.