First recordings of the ctenophore Euplokamis sp. (Ctenophora, Cydippida) in Swedish coastal waters and molecular identification of this genus
Journal article, 2012
The ctenophore Euplokamis sp. was observed and collected in the Gullmar fjord on the west coast of Sweden in April-August 2011 during regular jellyfish and zooplankton monitoring. In April-May 2011, both larval and adult Euplokamis sp. were collected in the surface water of the fjord and in June-August in the deep part of the fjord at 110-100 m. The typical morphological and behavioral characters of Euplokamis sp. were observed (i.e. coiled tentacle side branches and rapid swimming both in forward and reverse). With no published sequence data from the ctenophore family Euplokamidae, molecular identification using the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region I region (ITS1) revealed that Euplokamis sp. individuals were closely related to the morphologically similar ctenophore family Mertensiidae. Therefore, morphological and molecular data support the identification as Euplokamis. Euplokamis sp. densities in the deep water of the Gullmar fjord in June 2011 reached similar densities as the local ctenophore Beroe spp. The presence of Euplokamis sp. and other ctenophores in the area is discussed together with the importance of continuous monitoring of gelatinous forms to include detection of less frequent and more fragile ctenophore species. We also discuss the importance of molecular identification for ctenophore larvae and adult ctenophores of small size.
monitoring of jellyfish