Journal article, 2012
The European Microwave Association (EuMA), as an international nonprofit association, works with the aim of developing education, training, and research activities in the area of microwave technology in Europe. In the Göteborg region of Spain, microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) links for microwave backhaul are developed and produced from 7 to 40 GHz, lately also at E-band. At the Aalto University in Finland, microwave techniques and related topics such as electromagnetics, antennas and propagation, RF circuit design, circuit theory, microwave remote sensing, and radio communications are studied and taught, mainly at the Department of Radio Science and Engineering. Polish microwave engineering activities date back to the late 1940s with the advent of the first Polish microwave tube: a pulse magnetron model M2, developed by the Telecommunications Research Institute (PIT) in collaboration with the Warsaw University of Technology.