Photoemission and low energy electron microscopy study on the formation and nitridation of indium droplets on Si (111)7 x 7 surfaces
Journal article, 2013
The formation and nitridation of indium(In) droplets on Si (1 1 1)7 x 7, with regard to In droplet epitaxy growth of InN nanostructures, were studied using a spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy, for the In coverages from 0.07 to 2.3 monolayer (ML). The results reveal that the In adatoms formed well-ordered clusters while keeping the Si (1 1 1)7 x 7 surface periodicity at 0.07 ML and a single root 3 x root 3 phase at 0.3 ML around 440-470 degrees C. At 0.82 ML, owing to the presence of structurally defect areas beside the 7 x 7 domains, 3-D In droplets evolved concomitantly with the formation of 4 x 1-In cluster chains, accompanied by a transition in surface electric property from semiconducting to metallic. Further increasing the In to 2.3 ML led to a moderate increase in number density and an appreciable lateral growth of the droplets, as well as the multi-domain In phases. Upon nitridation with NH3 at similar to 480 degrees C, besides the nitridation of the In droplets, the N radicals also dissociated the In - Si bonds to form Si - N. This caused a partial disintegration of the ordered In phase and removal of the In adatoms between the In droplets.
Spectroscopic photoemission microscopy