Passive sampling for monitoring of inorganic pollutants in water
Doctoral thesis, 2013
As new environmental management policies for watersheds are implemented, there has been a growing interest for new monitoring alternatives. Traditionally grab sampling has been the method of choice for monitoring purposes, but may not be adequate or economically viable, to meet the requirements of the new policies.
Passive samplers for monitoring of aquatic pollutants have been described in the literature for almost three decades, but they are only beginning to gain acceptance outside the scientific research community. The potential advantages of passive samplers over other sampling and measurement strategies include the ability to integrate pollutant levels over extended sampling periods (up to several weeks), as well as inherent speciation capabilities, allowing for critical in situ speciation of metals. Passive samplers are relatively low-cost and do not require secure locations or additional infrastructure, making them ideal devices for certain monitoring tasks.
The research presented in this thesis aims at further developing passive sampling for aquatic monitoring. This research includes field trials, the development of a novel application for nutrient monitoring in waste water treatment plant effluents and the identification of scenarios for which passive samplers can be used. An analysis of measurement uncertainties associated with passive samplers is also presented.