Evaluation of opportunities for heat integration of biomass-based Fischer-Tropsch crude production at Scandinavian kraft pulp and paper mill sites
Journal article, 2013

This study investigates heat integrated production of FT (Fischer-Tropsch) crude, where excess heat from the FT crude plant is delivered to a typical Scandinavian pulp and paper mill that produces fine paper. The sizes of FT crude plants are quantified, when the amount of excess heat from the FT plant exactly matches the heating demand otherwise satisfied by the bark boiler at the mill, considering a number of development pathways at the mill, including various degrees of steam savings and biorefinery options, such as lignin extraction. Performance of integrated production is compared with that of an FT stand-alone plant on the basis of wood fuel-to-FT crude efficiency, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions balances and FT crude production cost. The results show that there exists a heat integration opportunity for an FT crude plant ranging from 0 up to 350 MW (LHV) of wood fuel depending on the development pathway for the mill. The results indicate higher overall efficiency and a generally lower production cost for the heat integrated, co-located production. Heat integrated production has a larger potential to contribute to GHG emission mitigation, assuming a future generation of grid electricity emitting equal to or less than an NGCC (natural gas combined cycle) power plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pulp and paper mill

Fischer-Tropsch crude

Greenhouse gas balance


Process integration

Biomass-based feedstock


Hanna Ljungstedt

Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies

Karin Pettersson

Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies

Simon Harvey

Industrial Energy Systems and Technologies


0360-5442 (ISSN)

Vol. 62 349-361

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Chemical Engineering

Energy Systems



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