Evaluation of the oxidation and Cr evaporation properties of selected FeCr alloys used as SOFC interconnects
Journal article, 2013
In recent years, a number of ferritic interconnect materials for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have been developed and are now commercially available. Although similar, there are substantial variations in minor alloying elements. This study compares the oxidation performance of five such interconnect materials: Crofer 22 H, Crofer 22 APU (ThyssenKrupp VDM), Sanergy HT (Sandvik Materials Technology), ZMG232 G10 (Hitachi Metals) and E-Brite (ATI Allegheny Ludlum). 1000 h exposures have been carried out in tubular furnaces at 850 degrees C, with 6 l/min airflow and 3% H2O to simulate the air side atmosphere in an SOFC. In addition to the oxidation tests, time resolved in-situ chromium evaporation measurements have been carried out using a novel denuder technique. It was found that higher Mn concentrations in the alloy lead to lower Cr evaporation. Nonetheless, all steels exhibit substantial Cr volatilization and coatings are needed for most SOFC applications. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the mass gain data alone can be misleading, and the mass loss due to Cr volatilization needs to be taken into account. Neglecting Cr evaporation results in an underestimation of the oxidation rate by between 15% and 200% for the studied steel grades.