Cavitation: a Contributary Factor in the Transition from Symmetric to Asymmetric Jets in Cross-flow Nozzles
Journal article, 2004
The structure and evolution of cavitation and its influence on jet patterns from two transparent cross-flow nozzles with holes inclined at 90 degrees (nozzle A) and 80 degrees (nozzle B) to the nozzle axis have been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. At the onset, cavitation inception was in the form of travelling bubbles, which were transported along the flow and clearly detached from the wall. As the flow was increased the bubbles grew and merged into a dense group of bubbles (cloud cavitation), partly unsteady and shedding. Further increasing the flow caused the cavitation at the entrance to transform mainly into a glassy appearance and at this stage the cavitation was well inside the hole and the spray appeared symmetric. When the flow was increased beyond this stage, cavitation extended to the exit of the hole, occupying a significant part of the hole on one side, resulting in a jet that atomized on the side where cavitation was most extensive and a non-atomizing jet on the side with less cavitation. The distribution of cavitation in the hole is very sensitive to the nozzle geometry and it substantially influences the spray dispersion.