Prospects for CCS in the EU energy roadmap to 2050
Paper in proceedings, 2013
The aim of this paper is to estimate the prospects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the European electricity supply system taking into account possible forthcoming policy based on the recent EU Energy Roadmap communication, which suggests a 93 to 99% reduction in CO2 emissions relative 1990 levels from the electricity sector by the year 2050. Furthermore, the effect of whether or not onshore storage will be accepted is investigated. The work is based on techno-economic modeling of the European electricity generation sector under different assumptions (scenarios) of the future with respect to electricity demand and fuel prices. The results indicate that the contribution from CCS on a member state level depends on local conditions, e.g., access to local fuels like lignite, and whether or not onshore storage will be allowed. Excluding on-shore storage in aquifers, the modeling results give that CCS is centralized around the North Sea. Natural gas fired conventional power plants is likely to be a serious competitor to coal CCS in the short to medium term providing large emission reduction opportunities by fuel shifting from existing coal power plants to new high efficient gas fired combined cycles. Such development can be a barrier for early deployment of CCS, and hence, result in a delay in commercialization of CCS. The scenarios presented in the Energy Roadmap prescribe power systems almost without net CO2 emissions by 2050, which implies that CCS technologies by the year 2050 must be of a zero-emission type. The modeling presented here indicates in general a large increase in technologies with low CO2 emissions, renewables as well as a significant contribution from CCS technologies, where CCS in the investigated scenarios have the potential to contribute as much as 25-35% of total electricity generation at around year 2050.