How design process for the Base of the Pyramid differs from that for the Top of the Pyramid
Journal article, 2014

The base (BOP) and the top (TOP) of the world income pyramid represent the poor people and the people from developed countries, respectively. The design of products for the BOP is an important ingredient of the poverty reduction approach that combines business development with poverty alleviation. However, the current understanding of the design for the BOP is limited. This study, using a protocol analysis, compared design processes for the BOP and TOP markets. The results indicate the difference between the design processes for these markets in terms of the design strategy employed by the designers (i.e. problem driven, solution driven strategy), their requirements handling behaviour, and their information behaviour.

protocol analysis

Base of the Pyramid

design process

design behaviour

design activity


Santosh Jagtap

Lund University

Andreas Larsson

Lund University

Viktor Hjort af Ornäs

Chalmers, Product and Production Development, Design and Human Factors

Elin Olander

Lund University

Anders Warell

Lund University

Pramod Khadilkar

Indian Institute of Science

Design Studies

0142-694X (ISSN)

Vol. 35 5 527-558

Subject Categories

Other Mechanical Engineering


Reliability and Maintenance

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance

Building Futures (2010-2018)



More information

Latest update

3/2/2018 9