Study on multilayer structures prepared from heparin and semi-synthetic cellulose sulfates as polyanions and their influence on cellular response
Journal article, 2014
Multilayer coatings of polycationic chitosan paired with polyanionic semi-synthetic cellulose sulfates or heparin were prepared by the layer-by-layer method. Two different cellulose sulfates (CS) with high (CS2.6) and intermediate (CS1.6) sulfation degree were prepared by sulfation of cellulose. Multilayers were fabricated at pH 4 and the resulting films were characterized by several methods. The multilayer 'optical' mass, measured by surface plasmon resonance, showed little differences in the total mass adsorbed irrespective of which polyanion was used. In contrast, 'acoustic' mass, calculated from quartz crystal micro balance with dissipation monitoring, showed the lowest mass and dissipation values for CS2.6 (highest sulfation degree) multilayers indicating formation of stiffer layers compared to heparin and CS1.6 layers which led to higher mass and dissipation values. Water contact angle and zeta potential measurements indicated formation of more distinct layers with using heparin as polyanion, while use of CS1.6 and CS2.6 resulted into more fuzzy intermingled multilayers. CS1.6 multilayers significantly supported adhesion and growth of C2C12 cells where as only few cells attached and started to spread initially on CS2.6 layers but favoured long term cell growth. Contrastingly cells adhered and grew poorly on to the layers of heparin. This present study shows that cellulose sulfates are attractive candidates for multilayer formation as potential substratum for controlled cell adhesion. Since a peculiar interaction of cellulose sulfates with growth factors was found during previous studies, immobilization of cellulose sulfate in multilayer systems might be of great interest for tissue engineering applications.