Photophysics and ex vivo biodistribution of beta-cyclodextrin-meso-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin conjugate for biomedical applications
Journal article, 2014

Low aqueous solubility of porphyrin-based photosensitizers hampers their clinical use in photodynamic therapy because of complex delivery. In this study, we explore meso-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)-21,23H-porphyrin (mTHPP), a potent photosensitizer, covalently attached to beta-cyclodextrin (CD-mTHPP) with a focus on topical delivery and cellular uptake. The photophysical properties of CD-mTHPP were examined using steady-state fluorescence and lifetime measurements verifying increased aqueous solubility. Confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on human squamous carcinoma cells (A431) evidenced a cytoplasmic uptake of CD-mTHPP in predominantly monomeric form. CD-mTHPP was also delivered to human skin ex vivo and the skin penetration was assessed using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that CD-mTHPP exhibits improved skin distribution compared to mTHPP alone using aqueous vehicles. Thus the CD-mTHPP conjugate demonstrates improved biodistribution ex vivo compared to mTHPP and is a promising multimodal system for photodynamic therapy.


Vladimir Kirejev

University of Gothenburg

A. R. Goncalves

Demokritos National Centre for Scientific Research

C. Aggelidou

Demokritos National Centre for Scientific Research

I. Manet

Istituto Per La Sintesi Organica E La Fotoreattivita, Bologna

Jerker Mårtensson

Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Organic Chemistry

K. Yannakopoulou

Demokritos National Centre for Scientific Research

Marica B Ericson

University of Gothenburg

Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences

1474-905X (ISSN) 1474-9092 (eISSN)

Vol. 13 8 1185-1191

Subject Categories

Organic Chemistry



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