Simulating operational alternatives for future cement production
Journal article, 2005
To support decisions on product and process development options and strategic planning, information on the consequences of planned changes are needed. For this purpose a flexible model for cement manufacturing has been developed. The model predicts the environmental, product and economic performance in a life cycle perspective, simulating different operational alternatives. Interesting future operational alternatives, such as an increase in the use of industrial by-products and wastes as raw materials and fuels have been explored. The results, i.e. the consequences from a life cycle perspective of potential development options, are discussed. The nine simulations show that the use of recovered material and alternative fuel (defined waste) can be increased while maintaining the current requirements on clinker performance. An increase in the use of recovered material and alternative fuel replaces the use of resources. The simulations also show that the emissions of CO 2 , NO X , SO 2 , CO, VOC, CH 4 and dust can be reduced between 30 and 80% depending on the use of recovered material and alternative fuel. The transport of recovered material and alternative fuel increases with increased use. However, the environmental benefits of the increase in use of recovered material and alternative fuel are by far greater than the resource use and emissions to air associated with the increase in transport. © 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.