Norovirus Dynamics in Wastewater Discharges and in the Recipient Drinking Water Source: Long-Term Monitoring and Hydrodynamic Modeling
Journal article, 2016
Norovirus (NoV) that enters drinking water sources with wastewater discharges is a common cause of waterborne outbreaks. The impact of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the river Gota alv (Sweden) was studied using monitoring and hydrodynamic modeling. The concentrations of NoV genogroups (GG) I and II in samples collected at WWTPs and drinking water intakes (source water) during one year were quantified using duplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mean (standard deviation) NoV GGI and GGII genome concentrations were 6.2 (1.4) and 6.8 (1.8) in incoming wastewater and 5.3 (1.4) and 5.9 (1.4) log(10) genome equivalents (g.e.) L-1 in treated wastewater, respectively. The reduction at the WWTPs varied between 0.4 and 1.1 log(10) units. In source water, the concentration ranged from below the detection limit to 3.8 log(10) g.e. L-1. NoV GGII was detected in both wastewater and source water more frequently during the cold than the warm period of the year. The spread of NoV in the river was simulated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The modeling results indicated that the NoV GGI and GGII genome concentrations in source water may occasionally be up to 2.8 and 1.9 log(10) units higher, respectively, than the concentrations measured during the monitoring project.