Computational Aspects of Model-Based Reasoning
Book chapter, 2017
Computational models and tools provide increasingly solid foundations for the study of cognition and model-based reasoning, with knowledge generation in different types of cognising agents, from the simplest ones like bacteria to the complex human distributed cognition. After the introduction of the computational turn, we proceed to models of computation and the relationship between information and computation. A distinction is made between mathematical and computational (executable) models, which are central for biology, and cognition. Computation as it appears in cognitive systems is physical, natural, embodied and distributed computation, and we explain how it relates to the symbol manipulation view of classical computationalism. As present day models of distributed, asynchronous, heterogeneous and concurrent networks are becoming increasingly well suited for modelling of cognitive systems with their dynamic properties, they can be used to study mechanisms of abduction and scientific discovery. We conclude the chapter with the presentation of software modelling with computationally automated reasoning and the discussion of model transformations and separation between semantics and ontology.