Neoclassical flows in deuterium-helium plasma density pedestals
Journal article, 2017
In tokamak transport barriers, the radial scale of profile variations can be comparable to a typical ion orbit width, which makes the coupling of the distribution function across flux surfaces important in the collisional dynamics. We use the radially global steady-state neoclassical delta f code PERFECT [Landreman et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 045005] to calculate poloidal and toroidal flows, and radial fluxes, in the pedestal. In particular, we have studied the changes in these quantities as the plasma composition is changed from a deuterium bulk species with a helium impurity to a helium bulk with a deuterium impurity, under specific profile similarity assumptions. In the presence of sharp profile variations, the poloidally resolved radial fluxes are important for the total fluxes to be divergence-free, which leads to the appearance of poloidal return-flows. These flows exhibit a complex radial–poloidal structure that extends several orbit widths into the core and is sensitive to abrupt radial changes in the ion temperature gradient. We find that a sizable neoclassical toroidal angular momentum transport can arise in the radially global theory, in contrast to the local.