Synthesis of tunable hydrogels based on O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans from spruce
Journal article, 2017

© 2016 Elsevier LtdHydrogels with tunable mechanical properties based on O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs) from spruce functionalized with tyramine, a molecule containing crosslinkable phenolic groups, were prepared. Gel formation was induced by enzymatic crosslinking at the addition of horse radish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide to the modified GGMs. The degree of substitution determined the hydrogels final properties, and was varied by TEMPO oxidation of GGM to a degree of oxidation from 10 to 60%. GGM and its derivatives were characterized by gas chromatography and high pressure size exclusion chromatography to analyze sugar composition and molar mass, respectively. Tyramine-conjugated GGM was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Measurements of moduli over time showed crosslinking within 20 s and maximum stress of the prepared gels were compared by compression testing. Overall this system presents a cell friendly hydrogel from a renewable, low cost resource which could be applied in cell delivery, wound dressings, and biofabrication.


TEMPO oxidation

Enzymatic crosslinking


Gelling property



Kajsa Markstedt

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Polymer Technology

W. Xu

Åbo Akademi

Johan Liu

Åbo Akademi

C. Xu

Åbo Akademi

Paul Gatenholm

Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC)

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Polymer Technology

Carbohydrate Polymers

0144-8617 (ISSN)

Vol. 157 1349-1357

Subject Categories

Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology

Bio Materials

Polymer Technologies

Areas of Advance

Materials Science



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