3D Analysis of Porosity in a Ceramic Coating Using X-ray Microscopy
Journal article, 2017

Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is a new, innovative plasma spray technique using a feedstock consisting of fine powder particles suspended in a liquid. Using SPS, ceramic coatings with columnar microstructures have been produced which are used as topcoats in thermal barrier coatings. The microstructure contains a wide pore size range consisting of inter-columnar spacings, micro-pores and nano-pores. Hence, determination of total porosity and pore size distribution is a challenge. Here, x-ray microscopy (XRM) has been applied for describing the complex pore space of the coatings because of its capability to image the (local) porosity within the coating in 3D at a resolution down to 50 nm. The possibility to quantitatively segment the analyzed volume allows analysis of both open and closed porosity. For an yttria-stabilized zirconia coating with feathery microstructure, both open and closed porosity were determined and it could be revealed that 11% of the pore volumes (1.4% of the total volume) are closed pores. The analyzed volume was reconstructed to illustrate the distribution of open and closed pores in 3D. Moreover, pore widths and pore volumes were determined. The results on the complex pore space obtained by XRM are discussed in connection with other porosimetry techniques.

porositypore size distributionsuspension plasma spray


yttria-stabilized zirconia

x-ray microscopy



Uta Klement

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

Johanna Ekberg

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Surface and Microstructure Engineering

Stephen T Kelly

Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc.

Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

1059-9630 (ISSN) 1544-1016 (eISSN)

Vol. 26 3 456-463

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Other Materials Engineering

Areas of Advance

Materials Science



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