Wheat starch carbamate: Production, molecular characterization, and film forming properties
Journal article, 2017

Wheat starch carbamates of different degrees of substitution were produced in laboratory experiments and for the first time their film forming performance were investigated. The carbamation reaction between urea and starch was investigated using a factorial design. Long reaction time, 2 h, and high urea content, 10 and 25%, resulted in a high degree of substitution, 0.07 and 0.15, respectively. These starch carbamates were assumed to be cross-linked and showed best film forming properties resulting in continuous and firm films. Furthermore, a high degree of carbamate substitution favored a decrease in glass transition temperature (T-g) in cast films. The addition of acid as a catalyst for carbamation of starch produced inconsistent results and mainly lead to degradation of starch molecules that caused brittle films. FTIR and C-13 NMR analyses confirmed the covalent bonding between urea and starch in starch carbamates. In a final step, production of starch carbamates was successfully scaled up. A potential industrial use of these starches is as oxygen barrier in multilayer food packaging.


Wheat starch

Molecular structure


Film formation



C. Menzel

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

G. Seisenbaeva

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

P. Agback

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

M. Gallstedt

SIG Combibloc

Antal Boldizar

Chalmers, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Polymeric Materials and Composites

K. Koch

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Carbohydrate Polymers

0144-8617 (ISSN)

Vol. 172 365-373

Subject Categories

Polymer Technologies



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