Dependence of Beam Quality on Optical Intensity Asymmetry in In-Phase Coherently Coupled VCSEL Array
Journal article, 2018

Dependence of beam quality on optical intensity asymmetry among elements in in-phase coherently coupled vertical cavity surface emitting lasers array is analyzed using the finite-difference time domain solutions software. The analysis results reveal that the coupling efficiency of in-phased array decreases and the divergence increases as the level of optical intensity asymmetry increases. Furthermore, an addressable separated-contact three-element triangular in-phased array is fabricated and measured to verify the analysis. The array exhibits a relatively high of coupling efficiency of 24% and a near-diffraction-limit divergence of 3.2° (1.12 times of the diffraction limit, D.L.) when the optical intensity of each element is adjusted to be uniform. By degrading the optical intensity symmetry, the coupling efficiency decreases to 17.07% and the divergence increases to 4.03° ( 1.37× D.L.). After that, a much larger 10× 10 array exhibiting in-phase characteristics is produced and its beam quality and optical uniformity are measured and discussed. Analysis and experiment results demonstrate that symmetric optical intensity among elements is essential for in-phased array to achieve high beam quality. Employing separate contacts in the array is proved an effective way to obtain uniform optical intensity and achieve high beam quality.


coupling efficiency

beam divergence

VCSEL array

optical intensity asymmetry


G. Z. Pan

Beijing University of Technology

Yiyang Xie

Beijing University of Technology

Chen Xu

Beijing University of Technology

M. Xun

Beijing University of Technology

Y. B. Dong

Beijing University of Technology

Jun Deng

Beijing University of Technology

Hongda Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Jie Sun

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Quantum Device Physics

Beijing University of Technology

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics

0018-9197 (ISSN)

Vol. 54 3 2400306

Subject Categories

Analytical Chemistry

Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics

Other Physics Topics



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