Frequency Regulation in Smart Microgrids Based on Load Estimation
Journal article, 2018
The desired frequency is maintained in Smart Microgrid (SMG) when the generated power matches the grid load. Variability of wind power and fluctuations of the load are the main obstacles for performance improvement of frequency regulation in SMG. Active Power Control (APC) services provided by wind power generators is one of the main sources for performance improvement in frequency regulation. New coordinated APC architecture, which involves simultaneous speed and pitch control actions delivers desired power to the grid despite significant variations of the wind power. A tool-kit with discrete-time input estimation algorithms, which estimate input quantity using output measurements is presented. Unmeasurable load fluctuations are estimated with input estimation method using measurements of grid frequency deviation. Desired power for APC is driven by estimated and a priori known loads. This observer-based control method reduces the risk of overshoots and oscillations in frequency regulation loop compared to PID controllers driven directly by the frequency deviation. The stability of the closed loop frequency control system is proved, and simulation results show that observer-based control architecture provides significant improvement of the frequency regulation in SMG.
Input estimation algorithms
Active power control
Grid load estimation
Coordinated speed and pitch control of wind turbine