Bioinspired, nanoscale approaches in contemporary bioanalytics (Review)
Journal article, 2018
The genesis for this topical review stems from the interdisciplinary Biointerfaces International conference 2016 (BI 2016) in Zurich, Switzerland, wherein the need for advances in analytical tools was both expressed and addressed. Pushing the limits of detection for characterizing individual components, such as single proteins, single drug-delivery vehicles, or probing single living cells in a more natural environment, will contribute to the understanding of the complex biomolecular systems central to a number of applications including medical diagnostics, tissue engineering, and drug screening and delivery. Accordingly, the authors begin with an overview of single nanoparticle analytics highlighting two emerging techniques and how they compare with existing techniques. The first is based on single particle tracking of nanoparticles tethered to a mobile supported lipid bilayer, enabling the simultaneous characterization of both size and composition of individual nanoparticles. The second technique is based on probing variations in the ionic conduction across nanoscale apertures for detection of not only nanoparticles but also membrane-tethered proteins, thereby allowing a multiparameter characterization of individual nanoscopic objects, addressing their size, shape, charge, and dipole moment. Subsequently, the authors lead into an example of an area of application that stands to benefit from such advances in bioanalytics, namely, the development of biomimetic lipid- and polymer-based assemblies as stimuli-responsive artificial organelles and nanocarriers designed to optimize delivery of next generation high-molecular-weight biological drugs. This in turn motivates the need for additional advanced techniques for investigating the cellular response to drug delivery, and so the review returns again to bioanalytics, in this case single-cell analysis, while highlighting a technique capable of probing and manipulating the content of individual living cells via fluidic force microscopy. In presenting a concerted movement in the field of bioinspired bioanalytics, positioned in the context of drug delivery, while also noting the critical role of surface modifications, it is the authors’ aim to evaluate progress in the field of single component bioanalytics and to emphasize the impact of initiating and maintaining a fruitful dialogue among scientists, together with clinicians and industry, to guide future directions in this area and to steer innovation to successful translation.