Optimal headway merging for balanced public transport service in urban networks
Paper in proceedings, 2018

This paper presents a velocity control/advise algorithm relying on vehicle-to-vehicle communication, to ensure the headway homogeneity of buses on a joint corridor, i.e. when multiple lines merge and travel on the same route. The proposed control method first schedules merging buses prior to entering a common line. Second, based on the position and velocity of the bus ahead of the controlled one, a shrinking horizon model predictive controller (MPC) calculates a proper velocity profile for the merging bus. The model is able to predict short time- space behavior of public transport buses enabling constrained, finite horizon, optimal control solution to reach the merging point with equidistant headways, taking all buses from different lines into account. The controller is tested in a high fidelity traffic simulator with realistic scenarios.

Automated transport systems


Bus bunching

Velocity control

Headway homogeneity

Model predictive control


Balázs Varga

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Tamas Tettamanti

Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Balázs Adam Kulcsár

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Systems and control, Automatic Control


24058963 (eISSN)

Vol. 51 9 416-421

15th IFAC Symposium on Control in Transportation Systems
Savona, Italy,

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Transport Systems and Logistics

Control Engineering



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