Driver Kinematic and Muscle Responses in Braking Events with Standard and Reversible Pre-tensioned Restraints: Validation Data for Human Models
Journal article, 2013

The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13–44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3–19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible.

volunteer tests

kinematics

active human body model

seat belt pre-tension

electromyography

maximum voluntary contraction

validation data

muscle activation

Author

Jonas Östh

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Jóna Marin Olafsdottir

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Johan Davidsson

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Karin Brolin

SAFER, The Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre

Chalmers, Applied Mechanics, Vehicle Safety

Stapp car crash journal

1532-8546 (ISSN)

Vol. 57 1-41

Areas of Advance

Transport

Life Science Engineering (2010-2018)

Subject Categories

Vehicle Engineering

DOI

10.4271/2013-22-0001

More information

Latest update

2/12/2019