Cavity-free vacuum-Rabi splitting in circuit quantum acoustodynamics
Journal article, 2019
Artificial atoms coupled to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have played a crucial role in the recent development of circuit quantum acoustodynamics. In this paper, we have investigated the interaction of an artificial atom and SAWs beyond the weak-coupling regime, focusing on the role of the interdigital transducer (IDT) that enables the coupling. We find a parameter regime in which the IDT acts as a cavity for the atom, rather than an antenna. In other words, the atom forms its own cavity. Similar to an atom coupled to an explicit cavity, this regime is characterized by vacuum-Rabi splitting, as the atom hybridizes with the phononic vacuum inside the IDT. This hybridization is possible because of the interdigitated coupling, which has a large spatial extension, and the slow propagation speed of SAWs. We work out a criterion for entering this regime from a model based on standard circuit-quantization techniques, taking only material parameters as inputs. Most notably, we find this regime hard to avoid for an atom on top of a strong piezoelectric material, such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3). The SAW-coupled atom on top of LiNbO3 can thus be regarded as an atom-cavity-bath system. On weaker piezoelectric materials, the number of IDT electrodes needs to be large in order to reach this regime.