Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage
Journal article, 2019
The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO 2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that CO 2 emission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with CO 2 avoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 t CO2−1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such CO 2 avoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing CO 2 pipeline networks. CO 2 transport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total CO 2 avoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic CO 2 storage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies.