Diglyme based electrolytes for sodium-ion batteries
Journal article, 2018

Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are currently being considered for large-scale energy storage. Optimization of SIB electrolytes is, however, still largely lacking. Here we exhaustively evaluate NaPF6 in diglyme as an electrolyte of choice, via both physicochemical properties and extensive electrochemical tests including half as well as full cells. Fundamentally, the ionic conductivity is found to be quite comparable to carbonate based electrolytes and to obey the fractional Walden rule with viscosity. We find Na metal to work well as a reference electrode and the electrochemical stability, evaluated potentiostatically for various electrodes and corroborated by DFT calculations, to be satisfactory in the entire voltage range 0-4.4 V. Galvanostatic cycling at C/10 of half and full cells using Na3V2(PO4)(3) (NVP) or Na3V2(PO4)(2)F-3 (NVPF) as cathodes and hard carbon (HC) as anodes indicates rapid capacity fading in cells with HC anodes, possibly originating in a lack of a stable SEI or by trapping of sodium. Aiming to understand this capacity fade further, we conducted a GC/MS analysis to determine electrolyte reduction products and to propose reduction pathways, concluding that oligomer and/or alkoxide formation is possible. Overall, the promising results should warrant further investigations of diglyme based electrolytes for modern SIB development, albeit avoiding HC anodes.

sodium-ion

stability

degradation

electrolytes

batteries

Author

Kasper Westman

Chalmers, Physics, Condensed Matter Physics

Romain Dugas

College de France

Piotr Jankowski

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Warsaw University of Technology

Chalmers, Physics, Condensed Matter Physics

W. Wieczorek

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Warsaw University of Technology

G. Gachot

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

University of Picardie Jules Verne

Mathieu Morcrette

University of Picardie Jules Verne

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Enrique Irisarri

Institute of Material Science of Barcelona (ICMAB)

A. Ponrouch

Institute of Material Science of Barcelona (ICMAB)

M. R. Palacin

Institute of Material Science of Barcelona (ICMAB)

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Jean-Marie Tarascon

College de France

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Patrik Johansson

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

Chalmers, Physics, Condensed Matter Physics

ACS Applied Energy Materials

2574-0962 (ISSN)

Vol. 1 6 2671-2680

Na-Ion bAttery Demonstration for Electric Storage (NAIADES)

European Commission (Horizon 2020), 2015-01-01 -- 2018-12-31.

Next generation batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

Swedish Energy Agency, 2013-12-01 -- 2017-12-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance

Transport

Energy

Materials Science

Subject Categories

Physical Sciences

Chemical Sciences

Infrastructure

C3SE (Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering)

Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory

DOI

10.1021/acsaem.8b00360

More information

Latest update

6/24/2019