Lithium-Ion Battery Aspects on Fires in Electrified Vehicles on the Basis of Experimental Abuse Tests
Journal article, 2016

Safety issues concerning the use of large lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in electrified vehicles are discussed based on the abuse test results of Li-ion cells together with safety devices for cells. The presented abuse tests are: overcharge, short circuit, propane fire test and external heating test (oven). It was found that in a fire, cells with higher state of charge (SOC) gave a higher heat release rate (HRR), while the total heat release (THR) had a lower correlation with SOC. One fire test resulted in a hazardous projectile from a cylindrical cell. In the fire tests, toxic gas emissions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) were measured for 100%, 50% and 0% SOC.


Toxic gases



Hydrogen fluoride

electrified vehicle

thermal runaway

lithium-ion (Li-ion)

Abuse test


Carl Fredrik Larsson

SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut AB

Chalmers, Physics, Subatomic and Plasma Physics

Petra Andersson

SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut AB

Bengt-Erik Mellander

Chalmers, Physics, Subatomic and Plasma Physics


23130105 (eISSN)

Vol. 2 2 9

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Physical Sciences

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Materials Science



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