Energy-aware predictive control for electrified bus networks
Journal article, 2019
For an urban bus network to operate efficiently, conflicting objectives have to be considered: providing sufficient service quality while keeping energy consumption low. The paper focuses on energy efficient operation of bus lines, where bus stops are densely placed, and buses operate frequently
with possibility of bunching. The proposed decentralized, bus fleet control solution aims to combine four conflicting goals incorporated into a multi-objective, nonlinear cost function. The multi-objective optimization is solved under a receding horizon model predictive framework.
The four conflicting objectives are as follows. One is ensuring periodicity of headways by watching leading and following vehicles i.e. eliminating bus bunching. Equal headways are only a necessary condition for keeping a static, predefifined, periodic timetable. The second objective is timetable tracking, and passenger waiting time minimization. In case of high passenger demand, it is desirable to haste the bus in order to prevent bunching. The final objective is energy efficiency. To this end, an energy consumption model is formulated considering battery electric vehicles with recuperation during braking. Alternative weighting strategies are compared and evaluated through realistic scenarios, in a calibrated microscopic traffic simulation environment. Simulation results confirm of 3-8% network level energy saving compared to bus holding control while maintaining punctuality and periodicity of buses.