Oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion
Book chapter, 2015
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Experiences from actual operation with oxygen carriers have been reported from more than 20 pilot plants in the size range 0.3kW-3MW using gaseous, solid and liquid fuels. Total operational experience is 6700h and includes both manufactured materials and low-cost materials. The manufactured materials include oxides of nickel, copper, manganese, iron and cobalt, as well as combined oxides. The low-cost materials include iron ores, ilmenite ores, manganese ores, waste materials and calcium sulphate. Several materials studied show good performance with respect to both conversion and expected lifetime. Several materials can be expected to give low costs, and an oxygen carrier cost as low as 1/tonne CO2 captured may not be unrealistic.