Validation of a Behavioral Marker System for Rating Cadet's Non-Technical Skills
Journal article, 2019

Simulator-based training assumes a very important role in the maritime domain, particularly in the education of Officers Of the Watch (OOW). In the Portuguese Navy, most of the cadet's skills as future OOW rely on the success of this training. Beyond theory and technical training, the development of nontechnical skills is a key factor for obtaining officers capable of identifying and solving problems. To optimize the training and development of non-technical skills, using the Portuguese Naval Academy Simulator, a previously designed Behavioral Marker System model was further assessed. The revised model, which comprises new parameters such as the effectiveness of the task, was validated through a set of simulated sessions, where 11 instructors and 48 students participated. After each session, data was collected with questionnaires and focus group discussion, focusing on the quality and usability of the model and on the design of the scenario. The results show that the revised model, positively addresses the limitations found on the previous version, and it has received encouraging feedback from both instructors and cadets. This new model is now under implementation in all the Naval Academy course programs, and future research aims to digitalize the behavior markers.


Vitor Fernando Placido da Conceicao

Portuguese Naval Acad

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Studies, Maritime Human Factors

University of Lisbon

J. B. Mendes

Portuguese Naval Acad

M. F. Teodoro

Inst Super Tecn

Portuguese Naval Acad

Joakim Dahlman

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Studies, Maritime Human Factors

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)


2083-6473 (ISSN) 2083-6481 (eISSN)

Vol. 13 1 89-96

Subject Categories

Other Computer and Information Science

Information Science

Control Engineering



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