Methodological Approaches to End-Of-Life Modelling in Life Cycle Assessments of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Review article, 2019

This study presents a review of how the end-of-life (EOL) stage is modelled in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Twenty-five peer-reviewed journal and conference papers that consider the whole LIB life cycle and describe their EOL modelling approach sufficiently were analyzed. The studies were categorized based on two archetypal EOL modelling approaches in LCA: The cutoff (no material recovery, possibly secondary material input) and EOL recycling (material recovery, only primary material input) approaches. It was found that 19 of the studies followed the EOL recycling approach and 6 the cutoff approach. In addition, almost a third of the studies deviated from the expected setup of the two methods by including both material recovery and secondary material input. Such hybrid approaches may lead to double counting of recycling benefits by both including secondary input (as in the cutoff approach) and substituting primary materials (as in the EOL recycling approach). If the archetypal EOL modelling approaches are not followed, it is imperative that the modelling choices are well-documented and motivated to avoid double counting that leads to over- or underestimations of the environmental impacts of LIBs. Also, 21 studies model hydrometallurgical treatment, and 17 completely omit waste collection.

battery

cutoff

lithium-ion

end-of-life

life cycle assessment

recycling

Author

Anders Nordelöf

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Sofia Poulikidou

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Studies, Maritime Environmental Sciences

Mudit Chordia

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Felipe Bitencourt de Oliveira

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Johan Tivander

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Rickard Arvidsson

Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Environmental Systems Analysis

Batteries

2313-0105 (ISSN) 2313-0105 (eISSN)

Vol. 5 51 1-15

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Areas of Advance

Energy

Subject Categories

Other Environmental Engineering

Environmental Management

DOI

10.3390/batteries5030051

More information

Latest update

10/14/2019