SUPPLY AND SUBSTITUTION OPTIONS FOR SELECTED CRITICAL RAW MATERIALS: COBALT, NIOBIUM, TUNGSTEN, YTTRIUM AND RARE EARTHS ELEMENTS
Journal article, 2018

European industry is dependent on the import of raw materials. The European Commission has recognized that some raw materials are crucial for the function of the European economy and show a high risk of supply shortage. This communication addresses supply and substitution options for selected critical raw materials: cobalt, niobium, tungsten, yttrium, and the rare earth elements. For each element, the most relevant data concerning mining, abundance, recycling rates and possible substitutes are summarized and discussed.

Recycling

Critical raw materials

Circular economy

Author

Andreas Bartl

Vienna University of Technology

Alan H. Tkaczyk

University of Tartu

Alessia Amato

Marche Polytechnic University

Francesca Beolchini

Marche Polytechnic University

Vjaceslavs Lapkovskis

Riga Technical University

Martina Petranikova

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Energy and Material, Nuclear Chemistry

DETRITUS

2611-4127 (ISSN) 2611-4135 (eISSN)

Vol. 3 September 37-42

Subject Categories

Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

DOI

10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13697

More information

Latest update

8/21/2019