SUPPLY AND SUBSTITUTION OPTIONS FOR SELECTED CRITICAL RAW MATERIALS: COBALT, NIOBIUM, TUNGSTEN, YTTRIUM AND RARE EARTHS ELEMENTS
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

European industry is dependent on the import of raw materials. The European Commission has recognized that some raw materials are crucial for the function of the European economy and show a high risk of supply shortage. This communication addresses supply and substitution options for selected critical raw materials: cobalt, niobium, tungsten, yttrium, and the rare earth elements. For each element, the most relevant data concerning mining, abundance, recycling rates and possible substitutes are summarized and discussed.

Recycling

Critical raw materials

Circular economy

Författare

Andreas Bartl

Technische Universität Wien

Alan H. Tkaczyk

Tartu Ülikool

Alessia Amato

Universita Politecnica Delle Marche

Francesca Beolchini

Universita Politecnica Delle Marche

Vjaceslavs Lapkovskis

Riga Technical University

Martina Petranikova

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Energi och material, Kärnkemi

DETRITUS

2611-4127 (ISSN) 2611-4135 (eISSN)

Vol. 3 September 37-42

Ämneskategorier

Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap

Metallurgi och metalliska material

DOI

10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13697

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-08-21