CFD Analyses on 2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines
Journal article, 2011
In recent years, interest has been growing in the 2-Stroke Diesel cycle, coupled to high speed engines. One of the most promising applications is on light aircraft piston engines, typically designed to provide a top brake power of 100-200 HP with a relatively low weight. The main advantage yielded by the 2-Stroke cycle is the possibility to achieve high power density at low crankshaft speed, allowing the propeller to be directly coupled to the engine, without a reduction drive. Furthermore, Diesel combustion is a good match for supercharging and it is expected to provide a superior fuel efficiency, in comparison to S.I. engines. However, the coupling of 2-Stroke cycle and Diesel combustion on small bore, high speed engines is quite complex, requiring a suitable support from CFD simulation. In this paper, a customized version of the KIVA-3v code (a CFD program for multidimensional analyses) has been used to address ports and combustion chamber design of a new project (a 3-cylinder 1.8L engine, with a power rating up to 150 HP). Multidimensional calculations have been supported by 1D engine cycle analyses, using GT-Power. Two types of combustion-scavenging system have been considered, both of them featuring direct injection: a configuration with exhaust poppet valves and another one with piston controlled ports. A development of both projects has been performed through a coupled 1d-3d computational approach. A first set of KIVA calculations has been performed, in order to characterize the scavenging and the port flow patterns of both configurations, considering three different operating conditions, representative an aircraft engine. Then, several combustion simulations have been run, for defining two chambers able to match the project goals (high fuel efficiency, limited in-cylinder peak-pressure). For the two best configurations, the most interesting calculation results are presented in the paper.