Economic performance evaluation of natural gas vehicles and their fuel infrastructures
Paper in proceedings, 2018
The transition from high carbon-intensity to low carbon-intensity transport fuels entails the development of energy efficient and cost-effective decarbonisation pathways. In this paper, 14 potential natural and renewable gas supply pathways and natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been selected and evaluated with regards to well-to-tank (WTT) fuel production costs and break-even vehicle added investment costs. NGVs are evaluated for both road- and maritime transport applications with three types of gas engines; dedicated, dual fuel, and high pressure direct injection (HPDI) engines. The results indicate that owing to the alternate gas distribution mechanisms and filling stations configuration there exist a substantial fuel production cost differences between the selected gas pathways. Despite its long-distance shipping and distribution, imported LNG showed significant production cost advantage over compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied renewable natural gas (LRNG) pathways. Evaluating the current economic performances, all NGVs are found to be competitive corresponding to gasoline cars, but not compared to diesel cars due to the lower price gap between CNG and diesel. In the heavy-duty vehicle and passenger vessel segments, however, owing to the high price gap between LNG and diesel/marine gas oil (MGO), all NGVs and LNG passenger vessels showed high competitiveness compared to their conventional counterparts.