Automated Functions: Their Potential for Impact Upon Maritime Sociotechnical Systems
Licentiate thesis, 2020
This thesis considers the Sea Traffic Management (STM) Validation Project as the context to examine low-level automation functions intended to enhance operator (both Navigators and Vessel Traffic Service Operators) navigational safety and efficiency. The STM functions are designed to improve information sharing between ships and from ship to shore such as: route sharing, enhanced monitoring, and route crosschecking. The licentiate is built on two different data collection efforts during 2017-2018 within the STM Validation project. The functions were tested on two user groups: Bridge Officers and Vessel Traffic Service Operators. All testing was completed in high-fidelity bridge simulators using traffic scenarios developed by subject matter experts.
The aim of this licentiate is to study the impact of low levels of automation on operator behavior, and to explore the broader impact upon the maritime sociotechnical system. A mixed-method approach was selected to address these questions and included the following: observations, questionnaires, numerical assessment of ship behavior, and post-simulation debrief group sessions. To analyze and discuss the data, grounded theory, subject matter expert consultation, and descriptive statistics were used. The results point towards a disruption in current working practices for both ship and shore operators, and an uncertainty about the overall impact of low-level automation on operator behaviour. Using a sociotechnical systems approach, gaps have been identified related to new technology testing and implementation. These gaps relate to the overall preparedness of the shipping industry to manage the evolution towards smarter ships. The findings discussed in this licentiate aim to promote further discussions about a quickly evolving industry concerning automation integration in shipping and the potential impact on human performance in safety critical operations.
Katie A Aylward
Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Maritime Studies
Aylward, K., Weber, R., Lundh, M., MacKinnon, S.N. (2018). The Implementation of e-Navigation Services: Are we Ready? Paper presented at the International Conference on Human Factors; The Royal Institute of Naval Architects (RINA), London, UK: The Royal Institute of Naval Architects; 2018.
Aylward, K., Johannesson, A., Weber, R., MacKinnon, S.N., Lundh, M. (2019). An evaluation of low-level automation navigation functions upon Vessel Traffic Services work practices
Aylward, K., Weber, R., Man, Y., Lundh, M., MacKinnon, S.N. (2020). “Are you planning to follow your route?”: the effect of route exchange on decision-making, trust, and safety.
Sea Traffic Management Validation Project (STM Validation Project)
European Commission (EC) (INEA/CEF/TRAN/M2014/1034312), 2015-01-01 -- 2018-12-31.
VINNOVA (2015-06444), 2015-01-01 -- 2018-12-31.
Region Västra Götaland (DnrRUN2016-00739), 2015-01-01 -- 2018-12-31.
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Human Computer Interaction
Areas of Advance
Information and Communication Technology
Saga Building, Room Alfa, Campus Lindholmen - Hörselgången 4
Opponent: Dr. Mikael Wahlström, VTT Finland