Enacting metaphors to explore relations and interactions with automated driving systems
Journal article, 2020

Conventional interaction design methodologies cannot fully encompass the redefined relationships between humans and increasingly intelligent technology. New methods are necessary to address interaction at early stages in the design process. Both design metaphors and enactment techniques have been suggested, and this paper explores whether a combination of these can support the design of future interactions. Across three workshops, 27 participants utilised the combination to design the interaction with an automated driving system. Analysis shows that the method combination supported imagining and designing; metaphors aided the creation of a joint conceptual vision of the relationship, and the enactment created tangible experiences and contextualisation of the design concepts. Jointly the methods brought together multi-disciplinary teams in a shared vision, by acting as a shared language and enacted representations of insights that could be engaged with and experienced together.

design metaphors

automotive design

design methods

interaction design


Helena Strömberg

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Design and Human Factors

Ingrid M Pettersson

Volvo Cars

Wendy Ju

Cornell Tech

Design Studies

0142-694X (ISSN)

Vol. 67 77-101

AUX - Automotive User Experience

VINNOVA (2012-03664), 2013-01-01 -- 2016-12-31.

HMI design for automated vehicles - HATric

VINNOVA (2014-01411), 2014-08-01 -- 2017-06-30.

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories


Human Aspects of ICT



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